NT Language, Grammar, Syntax, Exegesis (Greek)

This page contains external links to helpful, technical articles on matters related to the study of the New Testament. This page lists only content articles/pages. Links to other sites that contain links related to biblical studies, etc. are on my Links page. See the explanatory notes on the main page, including .pdf file explanation. I welcome submissions and suggestions.


  • Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark in Light of Verbal Aspect (v. 10 in the Peter Lang series, Studies in Biblical Greek, ed. D. A. Carson; published Oct. 2000; ISBN: 0-8204-5033-2). This page provides information about the book, supplementary material, and some extracts (editor’s and author’s prefaces, etc.). Older material, with links to more detailed information, may be found on the pages on this site that deal with my dissertation. (Rodney J. Decker)
  • Verbal Aspect in Recent Debate: Objections to Porter’s Non-Temporal View of the Verb,” A Paper Presented at Evangelical Theological Society Eastern Region Annual Meeting, 3/30/01, Philadelphia Biblical University, Langhorne, PA (137K, 16 pgs. sg.-sp., v. 4 .pdf file). This is an edited adaptation of pp. 38-49 of my book. (Rodney J. Decker)
  • Verbal Aspect: Evaluating the discourse function of verbal aspect (step-by-step guide using Mark 1) (Rodney J. Decker)
  • A Brief Note on Greek Accents Particularly on Enclitic Forms and Most Particularly on the Enclitic Form εἰμί [EIMI]
  • Some Notes on Semantics, Illustrated with )Ekklhsia(ekklesia). (Rodney J. Decker) This study addresses issues related to methodology in semantics (diachronic vs. synchronic, etc.), particularly the efforts to define the meaning of ejkklhsia on the basis of its etymology and/or cognates. (250K .pdf file) Rev. 10/02
  • How Do We Use the Biblical Languages? Some Reflections on Synchronic and Diachronic Methodology in Semantics, Grammar, and Exegesis with an Excursus on Ἐκκλησία [EKKLHSIA]. (Rodney J. Decker; This article is much broader than the “Notes on Semantics” also listed on this page.) v.1.1; 21 pgs.; 228K .pdf file
  • What’s the Subject? (70K .pdf file, v. 5) 2-page summary of the relationship of the subject and predicate nominative with linking verbs in koine Greek. Intended for beginning and intermediate Greek students. (Rodney J. Decker)
  • New Testament Greek: A Brief Introduction by J. Gresham Machen
  • Resources for New Testament Exegesis, Roy E. Ciampa (Gordon-Conwell)
  • The Greek Verbal Network Viewed from a Probabilistic Standpoint: An Exercise in Hallidayan Linguistics (Stanley E. Porter and Matthew Brook O?Donnell), Filolog? Neotestamentaria 14 (2001): 3-41.
  • The Perfect Tense-Form in Recent Debate: Galatians as a Case Study (Thomas R. Hatina), Filologia Neotestamentaria 8 (1995):23-61.
  • Reflexive Pronouns in the New Testament (Patrick A. Tiller) Filolog? Neotestamentaria 14 (2001): 43-63.
  • A Comparison of the Usage of AKOUW And AKOUW-Compounds in the Septuagint and New Testament (Paul Danove) Filolog? Neotestamentaria 14(2001):65-86.
  • Koine Pronunciation: Notes on the Pronunciation of Phonemic Koine Greek (Randall Buth)
  • The Error of Erasmus and Un-Greek Pronunciations of Greek. (Chrys C. Caragounis) Filologia Neotestamentaria 8 (1995) 151-185.
  • Participles and Imperatives in 1 Peter: A Re-Examination in the Light of Recent Scholarly Trends. (Scot Snyder) Filologia Neotestamentaria 8 (1995) 187-198.
  • El adverbio ARTI en el Nuevo Testamento. (Juan Mateos-Jes? Pel?z) Filologia Neotestamentaria 8 (1995) 85-94.
  • hUPAKUW y t?minos afines en el Nuevo Testamento. (Juan Mateos) Filologia Neotestamentaria 8 (1995) 209-226.
  • Leftovers of Louw-Nida’s Lexicon. Some Considerations Towards “A Greek-Chinese Lexicon (S. Wong) Filologia Neotestamentaria 7 (1994) 137-174.
  • Verbal Aspect in Imperatival Constructions in Pauline Ethical Injunctions (Dave Mathewson) Filologia Neotestamentaria 9 (1996) 21-36.
  • Word Order in Koine Greek. Using a Text-Critical Approach to Study Word Order Patterns in the Greek Text of Acts (Jenny Heimerdinger) Filologia Neotestamentaria 9 (1996) 139-180.
  • Verbal Aspect, Discourse Prominence, and the Letter of Jude. (Jeffrey T. Reed and Ruth A. Reese) Filologia Neotestamentaria 9 (1996) 181-200.
  • New Observations on Voice in the Ancient Greek Verb, Carl Conrad; alternate URL.
  • “Aorist Passive” in -H-QH (Carl Conrad; extracts from Pierre Chantraine and Andrew Sihler on the origin of the aorist intransitive and “passive” verb forms)
  • Irregular verbs in NT Greek (chart by Carl Conrad, updated summer 2003)
  • Compendium of Greek Phonology (Carl Conrad)
  • A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek (H.P.V. Nunn)
  • The Use of the Infinitive in Biblical Greek (Clyde Votaw) pdf file copy of the complete 1896 publication by the author (orig. Ph.D. diss, Univ. of Chicago); this is on the Library of Congress web site; the URL linked here is temporary (should be accessible through Sept. ’03); once this link is outdated you can access the same file through the Library of Congress catalog record (though it was not yet linked there when I first posted this note).
  • The Significance of Greek for Jews in the Roman Empire (Kurt Treu) from Kairos NF 15, Hft. 1/2 (1973), 123-144 [original title: “Die Bedeutung des Griechischen fur die Juden im romischen Reich”].
  • MOODS AND TENSES OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK (Ernest de Witt Burton) Full text of this helpful grammar/syntax of the verb (3d ed., 1898). I think the Bible Works Greek font is required to read the Greek text in Greek characters. I do not know, however, how or from where one may obtain that font (if at all) apart from buying Bible Works.
  • William W. Goodwin, Greek Grammar (pdf format)
  • Participles (Dan Wallace) This is the complete chapter on participles (pp. 613-55) from Wallace’s Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the NT (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996).
  • The Greek Aorist Participle (Don Wilkins) “This article discusses the use of aorist participles placed after their governing verbs in the LXX and the New Testament.”
  • La sematica en el Diccionario Griego-Espanol (F. R. Adrados) Spanish article. Intro paragraph: “Entre las novedades que intentamos introducir en nuestro Diccionario Griego-Espanol, que desde 1980 ha editado cinco volumenes que llegan casi hasta el final de la letra delta, esta adecuacion de la redaccion y organizacion de los articulos a criterios de semantica moderna de base sintagmatica y paradigmatica.”
  • CLAROS, the web page of the Greek Spanish Lexicon (DGE) now contains a bibliographical data base of Greek Inscriptions, called CLAROS, which is available for public consultation. CLAROS is a sum of the concordances included at the end of many epigraphical collections that were published since the end of the 19th C., as well as a number of concordances prepared by the authors of theSupplementum Epigraphicum Graecum or by DGE for volumes that had an incomplete concordance or had no concordance at all. In all, CLAROS contains near 140,000 records coming from more than 350 epigraphical collections. (English site; link above is the Spanish version.)
  • EIS TO with the Infinitive. (Norbert Baumert) From: Filolog? Neotestamentaria 11 (1998): 7-24. This article argues that … (I’m working on a smry! The digest given is in poor English and I’ll have to digest enough of the article–which is in German–to figure it out.)
  • Modal Possibilities for the Elliptical Verb in the Imperative-Comparative Clause in NT Greek (John Makujina) From: Filologia Neotestamentaria 11 (1998) 43-56. The summary given with the article listing is as follows: “This study focuses on the modal possibilities of the elliptical verb in the imperative-comparative clause. After examining every imperative-comparative clause in the NT, it was discovered that comparative clauses that contained a verb were always in the indicative mood. Findings for comparative clauses with an elided verb were similar. Classifications and functions for various types of imperative-comparative clauses in the NT are also included in the paper.”
  • The Importance of the Biblical Languages (Martin Luther) A multi-page excerpt from: “To the Councilmen of All Cities in Germany That They Establish and Maintain Christian Schools,” 1524 (Located on this site.)
  • The Value of Greek: the two following listings are good discussions of just that.
  • The Minister and His Greek NT, ch. 1, ch. 7, ch. 9 (A. T. Robertson)(URLs corrected 12/03)
  • Brothers, Bitzer Was a Banker (John Piper)
  • Hellenistic Greek (Adolf Deissman). An important article from the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1909). 30K .pdf file (located on this site).
  • J. Gresham Machen, The Minister & His Greek Testament
  • B. B. Warfield on seminary curriculum, including the role of Greek and Hebrew in it. (URL broken; anyone know the current one?)
  • The Place of Greek and Hebrew in a Minister’s Education (Michael Burer)
  • A. T. Robertson (a brief biography of the great Greek grammarian; by Rick Schrader)
  • The Myth about the Meaning of First Class Conditions in Greek (Daniel B. Wallace)
  • Revisiting the Colwell Construction in Light of Mass/Count Nouns (Donald E. Hartley)
  • The New World Translation and Christologically Significant Article-Substantive-KAI-Substantive Constructions in the New Testament (J. Ed Komoszewski)
  • Granville Sharp: A Model of Evangelical Scholarship and Social Activism (Daniel B. Wallace) Although the page does not say, I think this is a paper delivered at the national ETS conference in Philadelphia in 1996. Wallace’s dissertation dealt with Granville Sharp, so this may serve as an introduction to it. The dissertation is well worth studying (available from UMI and I think to be published by Peter Lang. Also see next entry.)
  • Sharp Redivivus? A Reexamination of the Granville Sharp Rule (Daniel B. Wallace) An excerpt from Dan’s dissertation.
  • Granville Sharp and the Deity of Christ (Bill Combs) .pdf file–presently off line?
  • Sharp’s Rule and Antitrinitarian Theologies: A Bicentennial Defense of Granville Sharp’s Argument for the Deity of Christ (Robert M. Bowman, Jr., August 1998 Revised Edition) Atlanta Christian Apologetics Project, Inc.
  • Smyth’s (classical) Greek Grammar (Note: this is the first edition of Smyth [1920], not the current edition [1956], and the section numbers cited are different; it does have the full text online; part of Persus Project.)
  • Overview of Greek Grammar, keyed to Smyth’s classical Greek grammar; part of Persus Project (Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox)
  • Empirical vs. theoretical investigations of voice in Classical Greek: A critical review of Bakker (1994), Paul Kent Andersen, University of Linkopings (Sweeden) < link broken fall 2002 (anyone know where it went?)
  • A Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches to Greek: The Traditional Approach and the Linguistic Approach, Lee Roy Martin (May 1990)
  • An Outline of Lexical Semantics, Lee Roy Martin (6/27/97)
  • Septuagint Greek Compared to NT Greek, Lee Roy Martin (7/8/97)
  • A Semantic and Pragmatic Model of Lexical and Grammatical Aspect, Mari Jean Broman Olsen (Ph.D. diss. abstract )
  • Towards a Theory of Aspectual Nesting for New Testament Greek” (Kimmo Huovila, MA [Pro gradu] thesis, Univ. of Helsinki, 1999) Available in full text (English, .pdf file) or an abstract (Finnish–I assume!).
  • The Greek Language: The origin, evolution, influences and current form of the Greek Language, Ioannis Dimakos
  • Differences Between Classical and Hellenistic Greek: A Quick Introduction (Jay C. Treat)
  • Discourse Analysis and the Study of Biblical Greek, Part I Part II (Simon Crisp)
  • The Greek Language <Link broken? was: http://www.translexis.demon.co.uk/booklet/html/contents.html> including The Greek Alphabet and Accentuation of Greek Texts (Richard Watts), oriented toward modern Greek, but much is of interest in regards to the koine as well.
  • Participle Use Flow Chart (Rodney J. Decker; 11K .pdf file, 1 page). This chart summarizes the use of the participle in the Greek of the NT. It probably doesn’t list every possible use, but it covers most of them. It is designed to help the student think through the possible uses in any given text. The concept for this chart goes back to a similar one by Prof. Best at Dallas Seminary (prob. dating to the early 70s?) that I obtained from a former colleague who had attended DTS then. I have also seen the same chart with other modifications that I think may have been made by Prof. Sproule (?) at Grace Seminary. In my version of it the revisions are substantial. The official flow chart symbols are gone (Best had been an engineer, so they made sense to him, but most of my students don’t relate to that genre) and there are some major additions of my own. At this point, the concept is creditable to Best, but I doubt that he’d recognize the content or the specifics as his work.
  • Simplified Verb Parsing Chart (Rod Decker; 25K .pdf file). This is a one-page reference chart that I use to summarize the morphology of indicative verbs for my first year Greek students. It generally follows the approach of Bill Mounce’s Basics of Biblical Greek, though I have made some of my own simplifications to his system.
  • “Difficult” Primary Verb Forms (174K v. 5 .pdf file) This chart lists the more troublesome of the primary verb forms [aka, principal parts]. These are the 50 forms underlined in Mounce’s charts and recommended as helpful for a beginning student to memorize. Chart was prepared by Ron Hall, one of my students. Revised April 2002 to use the Galilee font (previous chart used the older Mounce font which does not embed properly).
  • Intermediate Greek Vocabulary (130k .pdf file) This document contains all NT Greek words that occur 27 times or more in the NT, sorted by frequency. It is the vocabulary assignment schedule that I use in teaching the first semester of second year Greek, but it may well be of use to others as well. This file was output from a database that I’ve created and contains the Greek word, actual frequency, card number in Gromacki’s Vocab. Cards, and an English gloss. As to “Why 27x?”–here’s why: in my first year classes students learn words occurring 50 or more times in the NT. In second year they review all these words in two large chunks at the beginning of the semester and then learn 25 new words per week for 9 more weeks.
  • Basic Greek Vocabulary (84k .pdf file) This document contains all NT Greek words that occur 50 times or more in the NT, sorted by chapter in Mounce’s Basics of Biblical Greek. It includes the same info as the previous listing in the same format.
  • The Greek NT read aloud (from W-H text, which is very similar to the UBS and NA texts) by Marilyn Phemister. Available in MP3 or RealMedia format.
  • NT Greek for Beginners, J. G. Machen (These are scanned images, not text. Follow the link “About this book” on the relevant Table of Contents page on the site linked here for the same in .rtf, .tiff, .png, and ThML formats.) This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College.
  • Review of Gerhard Raske’s Grammatical Blueprint Bible (series), grammatical diagrams of entire NT and some OT
  • Verb Charts (Helma Dik, Univ. of Chicago classicist–these are for classical Greek, but still useful for koine) Acrobat v. 4 or higher.
  • Greek numbers and Greek mathematics (G. Donald Allen, Texas A&M University)

Lexical material

Online Sources of Greek Texts

Textual criticism and translation issues