Bibliography: Greek Grammar and Linguistics

Compiled by Rodney J. Decker, 1994

This bibliography does not contain the standard New Testament grammars and lexicons. It focuses rather on journal articles and lesser known books. The verb receives the largest share of attention here. Material on verbal aspect is included, some of which deals primarily with languages other than Greek.

Armstrong, D. “The Ancient Greek Aorist as the Aspect of Countable Action.” Syntax and Semantics 14: Tense and Aspect. Edited by P. Tedeschi and A. Zaenen, 1–11. New York: Academic, 1981.

Bache, C. “Aspect and Aktionsart: Towards a Semantic Distinction.” Journal of Linguistics 18 (1982): 57–72.

Black, David Alan. Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek: A Study of Basic Concepts and Applications. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

Boyer, James. “Adverbial Clauses: Statistical Studies.” Grace Theological Journal 11 (1990): 71–96.

Boyer, James. “A Classification of Imperatives: A Statistical Study.” Grace Theological Journal 8 (1987): 35–54.

Boyer, James. “A Classification of Infinitives: A Statistical Study.” Grace Theological Journal 6 (1985): 3–27.

Boyer, James. “The Classification of Optatives: A Statistical Study.” Grace Theological Journal 9 (1988): 129–40.

Boyer, James. “A Classification of Participles: A Statistical Study.” Grace Theological Journal 5 (1984): 163–79.

Boyer, James. “The Classification of Subjunctives: A Statistical Study.” Grace Theological Journal 7 (1986): 3–19.

Boyer, James. “First Class Conditions: What Do They Mean?” Grace Theological Journal 2 (1981): 75–114.

Boyer, James. “Other Conditional Elements in New Testament Greek.” Grace Theological Journal 4 (1983): 173–88.

Boyer, James. “Second Class Conditions in New Testament Greek.” Grace Theological Journal 3 (1982): 81–88.

Boyer, James. “Third (and Fourth) Class Conditions.” Grace Theological Journal 3 (1982): 163–75.

Bubenik, Vit. “Dialect Contact and Koineization: The Case of Hellenistic Greek.”International Journal of the Sociology of Language 99 (1993): 9–23.

Bull, W. E. Time, Tense, and the Verb: A Study in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, with Particular Attention to Spanish. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1971.

Buth, R. “Mark’s Use of the Historical Present.” Notes on Translation 65 (1977): 7–13.

Callow, J. “The Function of the Historic Present in Mark 1:16–3:6; 4:1–41; 7:1–23; 12:13–34.” START (Dallas: SIL) 11 (1984): 9–17.

Carole Elisabeth Chaski. “Syntactic Theories and Models of Syntactic Change: A Study of Greek Infinitival Complementation.” Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 1988.

Cervin, Richard S. “Word Order in Ancient Greek.” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Illinois, 1990.

Colwell, E. C. “Greek Language.” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. 2:479–87.

Comrie, B. Aspect: An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976.

Comrie, B. Tense. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985.

Conybeare, W. J. “The Use of the Aorist.” Journal of Philology 1 (1868): 222–30. (Pagination includes unsigned editor’s note by F. J. A. Hort at the end of the article.)

Coughanowr, E. N. “The Verbal Categories in the Greek of the Synoptic Gospels.” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, 1955.

Cotterell, Peter and Max Turner. Linguistics and Biblical Interpretation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989.

Davison, M. E. “New Testament Greek Word Order.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 4.1 (1989): 19–28.

Deissmann, Adolf. “Hellenistic Greek with Special Consideration of the Greek Bible.” In The Language of the New Testament: Classic Essays. JSNT supp. series # 60. Edited by Stanley E. Porter, 39–59. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991.

Delancey, S. “Aspect, Transitivity and Viewpoint.” Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics and Pragmatics. Edited by P. J. Hopper, 167–83. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1982.

Drewitt, J. A. J. “The Augment in Homer.” Classical Quarterly 6 (1912): 44–59, 104–20.

Durie, D. Greek Grammar: A Concise Grammar of NT Greek. Canberra, Australia: privately printed, 1981.

Elliott, Wm. E. “Conditional Sentences in the Greek New Testament.” Th.D. diss., Grace Theological Seminary, 1981.

Ellis, J. [O.] Review of Bull, Time. Archivum Linguisticum 13 (1961): 210–12.

Erickson, R. J. “Biblical Semantics, Semantic Structure, and Biblical Lexicology: A Study of Methods, with Special Reference to the Pauline Lexical Field of ‘Cognition.'” Ph.D. diss., Fuller Theological Seminary, 1980.

Erickson, R. J. “OIDA and GINOSKO and Verbal Aspect in Pauline Usage.” Westminster Theological Journal 44 (1982): 110–22.

Fanning, Buist. Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

France, R. T. “The Exegesis of Greek Tenses in the NT.” Notes on Translation 46 (1972): 3–12.

Franklin, Karl J. “Speech Act Verbs and the Words of Jesus.” In Language in Context: Essays for Robert E. Longacre. Edited by Shin Ja J. Hwang and William R. Merrifield. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics & University of Texas at Artlington, 1992.

Friberg, Timothy. “New Testament Greek Word Order in Light of Discourse Considerations.” Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1982. [University Microfilms order no. AAC 8213977]

Funk, R. W. “The Syntax of the Greek Article.” Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1953.

[Gildersleeve, B. L.] “Temporal Sentences of Limit in Greek.” American Journal of Philology 24 (1903): 388–408.

Goodspeed, E. J. “A New Glimpse of Greek Tense-Movements in NT Times.” American Journal of Theology 10 (1906): 102–03.

Guite, H. H. “Review of Porter’s Verbal Aspect.” Expository Times 101 (1989): 346–47.

Haberland, H. “A Note on the ‘Aorist.'” Language and Discourse: Test and Protest. Edited by J. L. Mey, 173–84. Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe, 19. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1986.

Halliday, M. A. K. “Lexis as a Linguistic Level.” In In Memory of J. R. Firth. Edited by C. E. Bazell et al., 148–62. London: Longman, 1966.

Hartman, L. Participial Constructions in the Synoptic Gospels. Testimonium Linguae. Coniectanea Neotestamentica 19. Lund: Gleerup, 1963.

Hintze, W. R. “The Significance of the Greek First Class Conditional Sentence in the Structure and Interpretation of the Gospels.” Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1969.

Hirtle, W. H. Time, Aspect and the Verb. Cahiers de psychom?hanique du langage. Qu?ec: Les presses de l’Universit?aval, 1975.

Hopper, P. J. “Aspect and Foregrounding in Discourse.” Syntax and Semantics 12: Discourse and Syntax. Edited by T. Givon, 213–41. New York: Academic, 1979.

Hopper, P. J., ed. Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics and Pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1982.

Horsley, G. H. R. “The Linguistic and Historical Context of the Greek of the NT: The Evidence of Contemporary Documents.” Ph.D. diss., Macquarrie Univ., Australia, 1985.

Houben, J. L. “The Conditional Sentence in Ancient Greek.” Ph.D. diss., Princeton Univ., 1976.

Johnson, M. R. “A Unified Temporal Theory of Tense and Aspect.” Syntax and Semantics, 14: Tense and Aspect. Edited by P. J. Tedeschi and A. Zaenen, 145–75. New York: Academic, 1981.

Johnson, O. E. Tense Significance as the Time of the Action. Language Dissertations 21. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America, 1936.

Joseph, Brian D. Morphology and Universals in Syntactic Change: Evidence from Medieval and Modern Greek. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Linguistics Club, 1978. [Covers classical to modern Greek, despite the title.]

Karleen, Paul S. “The Syntax of the Participle in the Greek New Testament.” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1980.

Kilpatrick, G. D. “The Historic Present in the Gospels and Acts.” Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 68 (1977): 258–62.

Larson, Iver. “Notes on the Function of γαρ, μεν, δε, και and τε in the Greek New Testament.” Notes on Translation 5.1 (1991): 35–47.

Larson, Iver. “Word Order and Relative Prominence in New Testament Greek.” Notes on Translation 5.1 (1991): 29–34.

Louw, J. P. “Discourse Analysis and the Greek NT.” Bible Translator 30 (1979): 108–17.

Louw, J. P. “New Testament Greek: The Present State of the Art.” Neotestamentica 29 (1990): 159–72.

Louw, J. P. “On Greek Prohibitions.” Acts Classica 2 (1959): 43–57.

Louw, J. P. “Verbal Aspect in the First Letter of John.” Neotestamentica 9 (1975): 98–104.

Lyons, J. “Deixis and Subjectivity: Loquor, ergo sum?” Speech, Place and Action. Edited by R. J. Jarvella and W. Klein, 201–24. New York: Wiley, 1982.

Maloney, Elliot C. “The Historical Present in the Gospel of Mark.” In To Touch the Text: Biblical and Related Studies in Honor of Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J. Edited by M. P. Horgen and P. J. Kobelski, 67–78. New York: Crossroad, 1989.

Markey, T. L. “Deixis and Diathesis: The Case of the Greek κ-perfect.” Indogermanische Forschungen 85 (1980): 279–97.

Marlett, Stephen A. “Extraction from Complement Clauses in Koine Greek.” Working Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. 31 (1987): 65–72.

McGaughy, Lane C. “Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ As a Linking Verb in New Testament Greek.” Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1970. Reprinted in SBL Dissertation series, 6. n.p.: Society of Biblical Literature, 1972.

McKay, K. L. “Aspect in Imperatival Constructions in New Testament Greek.” Novum Testamentum 27 (1985): 201–26.

McKay, K. L. “Aspects of the Imperative in Ancient Greek.” Antichthon 20 (1986): 41–58.

McKay, K. L. “Aspectual Usage in Timeless Contexts in Ancient Greek.” In In the Footsteps of Raphael K?ner. Edited by A. Rijksbaron et al., 193–208. 1988.

McKay, K. L. “Further Remarks on the ‘Historical’ Present and Other Phenomena.” Foundations of Language 11 (1974): 247–51.

McKay, K. L. Greek Grammar for Students: A Concise Grammar of Classical Attic with Special Reference to Aspect in the Verb. Canberra: Austrailian National Univ., 1974.

McKay, K. L. A New Syntax of the Verb in NT Greek: An Aspectual Approach. Studies in Biblical Greek, 5. New York: Peter Lang, 1994.

McKay, K. L. “On the Perfect and Other Aspects in New Testament Greek.” Novum Testamentum 23 (1981): 289–329.

McKay, K. L. “On the Perfect and Other Aspects in Non-Literary Papyri.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 27 (1980): 23–49.

McKay, K. L. “Repeated Action, the Potential and Reality in Ancient Greek.” Antichthon 15 (1981): 36–46.

McKay, K. L. “Style and Significance in the Language of John 21:15–17.” Novum Testamentum 27 (1985): 319–33.

McKay, K. L. “Syntax in Exegesis.” Tyndale Bulletin 23 (1972): 39–57.

McKay, K. L. “Time and Aspect in New Testament Greek.” Novum Testamentum 34 (1992): 209–28.

McKay, K. L. “The Use of the Ancient Greek Perfect down to the End of the Second Century.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 12 (1965): 1–21.

Metts, Ray. “Greek Sentence Structure: A Traditional, Descriptive Generative Study.” Th.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1977.

Metzger, Bruce M. “The Language of the New Testament.” In The Interpreter’s Bible. Edited by George A. Buttrick, 7:43–59. New York: Abingdon, Cokesbury, 1951.

Mussies, Gerald. “Greek as the Vehicle of Early Christianity.” New Testament Studies 29 (1983): 356–69.

Olsen, Mari Jean Broman. “A Semantic and Pragmatic Model of Lexical and Grammatical Aspect.” Ph.D. diss., Northwestern Univ., 1994.

Palmer, Micheal. “How Do We Know a Phrase is a Phrase: A Plea for Procedural Clarity in the Application of Linguistics to Biblical Greek.” In Biblical Greek Language and Linguistics: Open Questions in Current Research. Edited by Stanley Porter and D. A. Carson, 152-86. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993.

Palmer, Micheal. Levels of Constituent Structure in New Testament Greek. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Platt, A. ΜΕΛΛΩ. Journal of Philology 21 (1893): 39–45.

Platt, A. “The Augment in Homer.” Journal of Philology 19 (1891): 211–37.

Porter, Stanley E. “The Adjectival Attributive Genitive in the New Testament: A Grammatical Study.” Trinity Journal 4.1 (1983): 3–17.

Porter, Stanley E. “Did Jesus Ever Teach in Greek?” Tyndale Bulletin 44 (1993): 199–235.

Porter, Stanley E. “The Greek of the New Testament as a Disputed Area of Research.” In The Language of the New Testament: Classic Essays. JSNT supp. series # 60. Edited by Stanley E. Porter, 11–38. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991.

Porter, Stanley E. “Keeping up with Recent Studies: 17. Greek Language and Linguistics.” Expository Times 103 (1991–92): 202–07.

Porter, Stanley E. “Studying Ancient Languages from a Modern Linguistic Perspective: Essential Terms and Terminology.” Filolog? Neotestamentaria 2 (1989): 147–72.

Porter, Stanley E. The Language of the New Testament: Classic Essays. JSNT supp. series # 60. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991.

Porter, Stanley E. “Tense Terminology and Greek Language Study: A Linguistic Re-Evaluation.” Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2 (1986): 77–86.

Porter, Stanley E. “Vague Verbs, Periphrastics, and Matt 16:19.” Filologia Neotestamentaria 1 (1988): 155–73.

Porter, Stanley E. Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the New Testament with Reference to Tense and Mood. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.

Porter, Stanley E. “Word Order and Clause Structure in New Testament Greek: An Unexplored Area of Greek Linguistics Using Philippians as a Test Case.” Filologia Neotestamentaria 6 (1993): 177–206.

Porter, Stanley E. and D. A. Carson. Biblical Greek Language and Linguistics: Open Questions in Current Research. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993.

Porter, Stanley E. and N. J. C. Gotteri. “Ambiguity, Vagueness and the Working Systemic Linguist.” Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2 (1985): 105–18.

Reynolds, S. M. “The Zero Tense in Greek: A Critical Note.” WTJ 32 (1965): 68–72.

Rife, J. M. “Greek Language of the NT.” In The International Standard Bible Encylcopedia. Edited by G. Bromiley, 2:568–73. Revised edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982.

Roberts, J. W. “Some Aspects of Conditional Sentences in the Greek New Testament.” Restoration Quarterly 4 (1960). Reprinted in Bible Translator 15 (1964): 70–76.

Rydbeck, Lars. “On the Question of Linguistic Levels and the Place of the New Testament in the Contemporary Language Milieu,” in The Language of the New Testament: Classic Essays. JSNT supp. series # 60. Edited by Stanley E. Porter, 191–204. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991.

Rydbeck, Lars. “What Happened to New Testament Greek Grammar After Albert Debrunner?” New Testament Studies 21 (1975): 424–27.

Sampson, Geoffrey. Schools of Linguistics. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press, 1980.

Schmidt, Daryl. “The Study of Hellenistic Greek in the Light of Contemporary Linguistics.” In Perspectives on the New Testament: Essays in Honor of Frank Stagg. Edited by Charles H. Talbert. Macon: Mercer Univ. Press, 1985.

Schmidt, Daryl. Hellenistic Greek Grammar and Noam Chomsky: Nominalizing Transformations. Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1981.

Silva, Moisés. “Bilingualism and the Character of Palestinian Greek.” Biblica 61 (1980): 198–219. Reprinted in The Language of the New Testament: Classic Essays. JSNT supp. series # 60. Edited by Stanley E. Porter, 205–26. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991.

Silva, Moisés. God, Language and Scripture: Reading the Bible in the Light of General Linguistics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.

Silva, Moisés. “Review of Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek by Buist Fanning and Verbal Aspect in the Greek New Testament: With Reference to Tense and Mood by Stanley E. Porter.”Westminster Theological Journal 54 (1992): 179–83.

Smith, Charles R. “Errant Aorist Interpreters.” Grace Theological Journal 2.2 (1981): 205–26.

Stagg, Frank. “The Abused Aorist.” JBL 91 (1972): 222–31.

Szemerenyi, O. “Greek μέλλω: A Historical and Comparative Study.” American Journal of Philology 72 (1951): 346–68.

Szemerenyi, O. “The Origin of Aspect in the Indo-European Languages.” Glotta 65 (1987): 1–18.

Szemerenyi, O. “Unorthodox Views of Tense and Aspect.” Archivum Linguisticum 17 (1969): 161–71.

Taylor, Ann. “A Prosodic Account of Clitic Position in Ancient Greek.” In Second Position Clitics and Related Phenomena. Edited by Aaron Halpern and Arnold Zwicky. Stanford: Center for Study of Language and Information, forthcoming.

Taylor, Ann. “Clitics and Configurationality in Ancient Greek.” Univ. of Penn. diss., 1991. [University Microfilms order no. AAC 9112632]

Taylor, Ann. “The Distribution of Object Clitics in Koine Greek.” Paper presented at the East Coast Indo-European Conference, Austin, Texas, June 1994.

Thorley, John. “Subjunctive Aktionsart in New Testament Greek: A Reassessment.” Novum Testamentum 30 (1988): 193–211.

Thorley, John. “Aktionsart in New Testament Greek: Infinitive and Imperative.” Novum Testamentum 31 (1989): 290–315.

Voelz, J. W. “Present and Aorist Verbal Aspect: A New Proposal.” Neotestamentica 27 (1993): 153–64.

Voelz, J. W. “The Use of the Present and Aorist Imperatives and Prohibitions in the New Testament.” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Cambridge, 1977.

Young, Richard A. “A Classification of Conditional Sentences Based on Speech Act Theory.” Grace Theological Journal 10.1 (1989): 29–50.

Weinrich, H. “Tense and Time.” Archivum Linguisticum NS 1 (1970): 31–41.

Whaley, Lindsay. “The Effect of Non-Surface Grammatical Relations on the Genitive Absolute in Koine Greek.” In Grammatical Relations: A Cross-Theoretical Perspective. Edited by Katarzyna Dziwirek, Patrick Farrell, and Errepel Mejias-Bikandi. Stanford: Center for Study of Language & Information, 1990.

Wong, H. “The Nature of the Greek of the New Testament: Its Past and Present.” Scriptura (Stellenbosch) 32 (1990): 1–27.

Wonneberger, Reinhard. “Greek Syntax: A New Approach.” Literary and Linguistic Computing. 2.2 (1987): 71–79.

Woodard, Roger Dillard. On Interpreting Morphological Change: The Greek Reflexive Pronoun. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1990. Published version of: “Generalization of the ἑαυτον Third Person Reflexive Pronoun in Greek: Xenophon to the New Testament.” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Tense and Discourse

The following section is from the net as explained in the explanatory paragraphs that immediately follow. I have revised the formatting and provided missing information where possible. Much of it relates to verbal aspect and discourse analysis in English, but much of the theoretical discussion should also prove to be of interest for Greek.

Subject: References on Tense and Discourse


Date: 14 Nov 94 15:21:36 CST.

I recently saw this on the Linguist List and, given the recent discussion of aspect and discourse here, I thought it might be of interest. (I know that tense and aspect are at least analytically distinct, but I suspect that at least some of these references deal with the interaction of the two in creating textual and dialogue “cohesion,” to use Hasan’s phrase.) I hope that this is of use. Bob

Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 16:20:22 –0500 (EST)

From: Viola Giulia Miglio <>

Subject: sum:tenses and discourse analysis

Greetings to the LIST, I wish to thank everyone that answered my query on tenses and discourse analysis. I hope I have remembered to mention all of them in the following list… Needless to say I will continue to welcome replies to the original query and anyone wishing to have further information on bibliography than what is appended below, should feel free to contact me at the following e-mail address:

Best Regards, Viola Miglio

Almeida, Michael J. Reasoning about the Temporal Structure of Narratives. Buffalo: SUNY, Buffalo, Department of Computer Science, Technical Report 87–10. 1987.

Brown, Cheryl. “Topic Continuity in Written English Narrative.” In Givon315–41. 1983.

Chierchia, Gennaro. “Anaphora and Dynamic Binding.” Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (1992): 111–83.

Comrie, Bernard. Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Felson Duchan, Judith; Gail A. Bruder and Lynne Hewitt, eds. Deixis in Narrative: A Cognitive Science Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, (forthcoming).

Fleischman, Suzanne. Tense and Narrativity. Austin: University of Texas Press & London: Routledge, 1990.

Givon, Talmy, ed. Syntax and Semantics. vol. 12: Discourse and Syntax. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Givon, Talmy. English Grammar: A Function-Based Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1993.

Grimes, Joseph E. The Thread of Discourse. Janua Linguarum Minor. Mouton, 1975.

Gvozdanovic, Jadranka and Theo Janssen, eds., The Function of Tense in Texts. North Holland, 1991.

Heim, Irene. “The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases.” Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1982.

Hetzron, Robert. “Presentative Function and Presentative Movement.” Proceedings of the Second Conference on African Linguistics, Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 2 (1971): 79–105.

Hopper, Paul J. “Aspect and Foregrounding in Discourse.” In Syntax and Semantics, vol. 12: Discourse and Syntax. Edited by Talmy Giv?, 213–41. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Hopper, Paul J., ed. Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics and Pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1982.

Hornstein, Norbert. As Time Goes By. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

Jespersen, Otto. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, vol. 4. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1931.

Johnstone, Barbara. “‘He Says…So I Said:’ Verb Tense Alternation and Narrative Depiction of Authority in American English.” Linguistics 25 (1987): 33–52.

Kumpf, L. “Temporal Systems and Universality in Interlanguage: A Case Study.” In Universals of Second Language Acquisition. Edited by F. R. Eckman, L. H. Bell, and D. Nelson, 132–43. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1984.

Longacre, Robert E. The Grammar of Discourse. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.

Malbon, Elizabeth Struthers & Edgar V. McKnight, eds. The New Literary Criticism and the New Testament. JSNT Supplement Series 109. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994.

Nunes, Jairo and Ellen Thompson. “Intensional Verbs, Tense Structure and Pronominal Reference.” In Proceedings of the 23d Western Conference on Linguistics, S. Hargus, G. R. McMenamin, and V. Samiian: WECOL [6?] (1993): 348–60.

Nunes, Jairo and Ellen Thompson. “The Discourse Representation of Temporal Dependencies.” To appear in Proceedings of the Cortona Tense-Aspect Meeting. Edited by P. Bertinetto, V. Bianchi and M. Squartini, 1994.

Nunes, Jairo. The Discourse Representation of Tense Sequencing in Narratives. College Park, MD: University of Maryland MS, 1993.

Pinto, Julio C. M. The Reading of Time: A Semantico-Semiotic Approach. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1988.

Riddle, Elizabeth. “The Meaning and Discourse Function of the Past Tense in English.” TESOL Quarterly 20.2 (1986): 267–86.

Schiffrin, Deborah. “Tense Variation in Narrative.” Language 57.1 (1981): 462ff.

Thurgood, Graham. “English Tense and Aspect in Narratives: Perfectivity, Imperfectivity, and the Two Time Axes.” In Proceedings of the Western Conference on Linguistics: WECOL 3 (1990): 290–302.

Thurgood, Graham. “The Past Perfect, Narrative Structure and Louis l’Amour.” University of Hawaii: Working Papers in ESL 8.2 (1989): 27–43.

Trout, K. Venus on the Half Shell. New York: Dell, 1974. [7–47.]

Wallace, Stephen. “Figure and Ground” In Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics and Pragmatics. Edited by Paul J. Hopper, 201–23. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1982.

Wolfson, N. “On Tense Alternation and the Need for Analysis of Native Speaker Usage in Second Language Acquisition.” Language Learning 32 (1982): 53–68.

Wolfson, N. “The Conversational Present Alternation.” Language 55 (1979): 168–82.