Links 1: Biblical Studies and Theology

These pages collect a fair number of links in areas of interest to me. It is an eclectic list (some would probably say that it was “idiosyncratic”!), but the larger part relate either to New Testament studies in one form or another or to biblical studies in a somewhat broader scope. It should go without saying that I do not endorse everything that you might find on these linked pages, but that’s “life on the web”! For a listing of content-oriented pages (i.e., full-text articles, etc.) for NT study which are available on the web, see my specialized pages: Resources for NT Study.

Unbound Bible (Biola University) searchable text of the Greek New Testament (UBS 3d ed.) that uses the “Symbol” font so you can read the Greek text on-screen. You can search the Hebrew Bible,   Septuagint,  Latin Vulgate and  French, German, Spanish, Swedish, Russian, Norwegian, and Italian translations (even Tagalog!), as well as the NASB, KJV. You can also view three parallel versions of a passage simultaneously.


B-Greek Home Page (subscribe, settings, etc., a search function is available)

This is a list serve/discussion group related to biblical Greek (mostly NT, but some LXX). It is one of the more valuable such lists with more content/substance and fewer flames than many other lists I’ve seen. The list owner is Jonathan Robie. The list is moderated by Carl Conrad and Carlton Winbery–both good scholars who keep things in line and on target; they are also good “fire fighters”!

NT Gateway (Mark Goodacre) one of the best NT sites with a wealth of resources. (Mark must have more time and resources than I to keep up with everything he posts! Thanks, Mark.)

Bill Mounce WWW site (Greek font and software for learning Greek vocabulary and parsing; correlated with Mounce’s textbook, The Basics of Biblical Greek [Zondervan, 1993], but useable without the book.)

GkLang and Linguistics Gateway (Micheal Palmer)

Read the Greek New Testament (Peter Misselbrook) “This Web Site contains notes designed to encourage those who want to read through the Greek New Testament. There are 250 sets of notes, each of which covers five days. Using these notes you can read through the entire New Testament in 5 years. The notes are designed for those who have an elementary knowledge of New Testament Greek. Help is provided with grammar and vocabulary and with comprehension of the text.”

The GRAMCORD Institute (Paul Miller and company; the home of the original GRAMCORD project)

Accordance (Roy and Helen Brown)

The Cadillac of language software for serious grammatical study of the Greek NT (IMHO!); people buy Macs just to run this software–even Windows people, though they don’t always like to admit it!  😉

Accordance Users Forum and the Accordance Blog (David Lang)

DGE site: Diccionario Griego-Espan?l (main site in Spanish, but there is an English option) This major Greek-Spanish lexicon project’s site includes not only information about the project, but also content-oriented material (bibliography, etc.).

Ancient Greek Tutorial (Department of Classics of the University of California, Berkeley, a project of Professor Donald Mastronarde and the Berkeley Language Center; based on Mastronarde’s textbook,Introduction to Attic Greek.) This is a new and still somewhat experimental site. The pronunciation tutorial is very useful for beginners (though not with a slow modem). I’ve had better success with Netscape v. 4.5 than with Explorer v. 5.

Sources for Greek (and Hebrew) fonts: 

Galilee Unicode Greek font is available in Unicode format with complete coverage of both classical and koine Greek. This is a sans serif Windows/Mac OS X TrueType font for polytonic koine Greek. Also has bold and italic faces. More detail, samples, and a download link on the linked page. This is a font of my own creation. There are now many such fonts and the need for this one is not as great as when it was first created. It was originally designed in the days of CRT monitors, so was designed to be more legible in that environment. With the near ubiquity of LCD displays now, the design needs for this type of font are much less than they once were. There will not likely be much (if any) further development of this face, though it will continue to serve so longa as operating systems support ttf fonts.

(There is also an old “legacy encoding” version of this font, i.e., non-Unicode. It is now denigrated.) Everyone should be using Unicode fonts these days. <This link provides info on using Unicode as well as many sources for Unicode Greek fonts, etc.

See also Mark Goodacre’s Greek fonts page with info on various Greek font options.

David Perry has a good Unicode font (Cardo) available that contains both Greek and Hebrew ranges. For a (legacy) Hebrew font, see my colleague, Dr. Alan Ingalls’ font, BenEzra.[BROKEN]

The Summer Institute of Linguists (SIL) also provides high quality Greek fonts for free. See especially the superb Gentium font which includes the full set of Greek ranges in Unicode format. <This is my favorite Unicode Greek font.

Greek Classics, Perseus Project (Greek classics in electronic and searchable form)

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

Dictionary & lexicon searches (Greek, et al.)

Harry Hahne Reviews of software related to biblical studies

Diff/Classical and Koine Greek

Westcott-Hort text in Unicode format.

URL’s above have been checked and updated as of 1/30/2009. The ones below have not been verified in some time.

Textual Criticism & Papyrus

Institut fur neutestamentliche Textforschung (German site: Institute for NT Textual Research in Munster, Germany; this is the “home” of the Alands’ work [Kurt Aland died in 1994; his wife, Barbara Aland, retired from the university in 2002].)
TC-List (a mailing list devoted to biblical textual criticism, both NT & LXX)
NT Manuscripts – Papyri (Bob Waltz)
International Greek NT Project
Encycl/NT Txt Crit (Bob Waltz)
Electronic NT MSS Project
Duke Papyrus Archive
Papyrology Home Page
The Chester Beatty Library (images, nos. 3-10 are of papyri MSS, though not large enough to be readable)
The Scriptorium
Journal/Bib Text Crit
K. C. Hanson’s Collection of Greek Documents (contains an extensive listing of MSS)
NT Web Resources: Textual Criticism (Mark Goodacre) Includes many links relevant to NT textual criticisms, including a large collection of links to MS images. 
POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online and the related site: “‘A City and its Texts,‘ exhibition online.” Includes images of and extensive information about Greek papyri of the Ptolemaic, Roman and early Byzantine periods, from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt. An extensive, formal review of the site is also accessible in the b-greek list archives.
“The Philodemus Project: Carbonised Papyri from Herculaneum.” (When Mount Vesuvius erupted in A.D. 79, it buried two towns: Pompeii and Herculaneum.)
From Papyri to King James (U/Mich. exhibit) << new URL!
Ancient Manuscripts Web  (Timothy Seid) (Back on line finally! URL updated again, 4/30/02)
Textual Criticism and Manuscript Interpretation (David Moore)
Complete lists of all papyrus and uncial manuscripts (Wieland Willker, see next entry) –all 116 papyri and 310 uncials as of 1/2002. (NA27 only listed 98 papyrus MSS, which is all that were known when it was published in 1993.)
The Papyrus Egerton 2 Homepage (Wieland Willker) This site, available since Dec. 1998, contains an extensive discussion of a fragment of an unknown gospel (i.e., non-canonical), including numerous photos, etc. (Dr. Willker is a chemist who teaches at the Univ. of Breman, Germany; his text critical material is an avocational interest, but it is well done and useful.)

MS Photos

Biblical Manuscripts Project ( (orL is making high quality images and transcriptions of important Bible manuscripts and early printed editions freely available through the Internet. Development is conducted by biblical scholars at the Religion and Technology Center, which is affiliated with Emory University.

Papyrus 1 (Matthew 1:1-9,12,14-20) = POxy 2 (3d C)
Papyrus 13 (Hebrews 4:2ff; opisthograph, with the epitome of Livy on the reverse side; 3d-4th C.)
Papyrus 20 (James 2:26-3:9; late 3d C.); much larger image with readable text: recto (562K) and verso (536K)
Papyrus 21 (several related, linked pages and multiple photos), Matt. 12
Papyrus 40 (This page is an index of 16 photos of 10 different fragments of P40, text is from Romans, but in very bad condition–not readable, at least from this photo; use the 150 dpi photos if you want to see much detail, though they are large files and load slowly; the largest fragment/photo is fragment b; text in German)
Papyrus 46 (from the Univ. of Michigan Papyrus Collection; if the link given is not working, try the main page–which indicates that major changes were being made, at least as of summer 1999). An easier way to navigate these photos is the index provided by Brandon Wason on his Novum Testamentum blog.
Papyrus 52 (Jn. 18:31-33; the earliest known NT papyrus MS; contains transl. & notes by K. C. Hanson); another photo of the recto from the John Rylands Library in England (larger photo[recto, color]; recto & verso–B&W photo). Yet another photo from John Rylands Library.
Papyrus 54 (James 2:16-18, 22, 24-25; 3:2-4) larger photos: recto (436K), verso (405K)
Papyrus 66, Jn.1 (updated URL 9/2001)
Another site with 3 photos of P66 (Jn. 1, 7, 11).
P66 Koeln fragments
Papyrus 75, Jn. 1 (updated URL 9/2001)
Papyrus 86 (Matt. 5:13-16; 22-25; 4th C.) recto & verso (this site sometimes loads quite slowly, at least from the US–even on our T1 line here)
P87 Phm
P116–the newest NT papyrus manuscript, identified in 2001; contains Heb. 2:9-11 on recto and 3:3-6 on verso. (Be sure to use the links on the page marked here to see the larger, color photos of this MS.)
Codex Vaticanus (B), Jn. 1 (b/w) updated URL 9/2001; finally! a color photo (See the related pages of which this photo is a part.) There is a very recent full-color print reproductionavailable–though the price is over $6,000.00!
Codex Sinaiticus (Aleph), Jn. 1 (b/w) updated URL 9/2001, also note the current project to digitize Sinaiticus on make it available on CD-ROM. “Four institutions currently hold leaves from the Codex, the British Library, Leipzig University Library in Germany, National Library of Russia, and St Catherine’s Monastery in Egypt, and they have come together to create a digital reunification of the Codex Sinaiticus that will be published and placed on CD-ROM…. The international team?s goal is to create a scholarly edition of the Codex and as exact a replication as possible.” This project began July 2003 when representatives from three of the four holding institutions met in London; a draft proposal regarding the technical procedure was presented in Oct. 2003. Digitization is expected to begin summer or fall 2004. No release date has been given yet.
Codex Bezae (D), Jn. 1 (b/w); now superceded by a complete, high quality edition of the entire MS on the Biblical MSS Project site. A job well done! Now if we could only get Sinaiticus and Vaticanus posted in this format … !
Codex Washingtonensis (W), Jn. 1 (b/w) updated URL 9/2001
Codex Alexandrinus (A), Jn. 1 (b/w) updated URL 9/2001
Codex 666, Jn. 1 (b/w) updated URL 9/2001
P.Oxy. LVI 4499 (color; contains the only know MS of Rev. 13:18 that gives the number of the beast as 616 rather than as 666.)
P. Duk. inv. 778) amulet, Matt. 6:9-13
Minuscule MSS in the holdings of Oxford Univ. (these are large, very readable, good quality photos of the entire MS in each case, not just a sample leaf): minuscule 1907 (= Magdallen College ms. Gr. 7), Romans and Corinthians; minuscule 57 (= Magdallen College ms. Gr. 9), NT and some LXX, nearly 600 pgs. (293 folios)
7Q5 (also linked on another page) (This is a very small papyrus fragment that some think, almost certainly wrongly, is from Mark’s gospel.)
Illuminated Greek MSS (scroll down this long listing–it’s alphabetical)
Tyndale NT (Description and miniature on intro page)
Coverdale Bible (Description and miniature on intro page)
Geneva Bible (Description and miniature on intro page)
Great Bible (Description and miniature on intro page)
King James Bible  (Description and miniature on intro page)
Non-NT MS photos (LXX/OG) Numerous papyri available here, some of the earliest LXX/OG texts.
Early Manuscripts at Oxford University (both biblical and nonbiblical, science, medicine, poetry, philosophy, literature (including Canterbury Tales and Piers Plowman); in Greek, Latin, French, English, Irish, Welch, etc.) A fascinating collection for those interested in such things!

Biblical Studies

The complete The Bible Translator can now be accessed online at: (vols. 1 – 17) (vols. 18 – 34) (vols. 35 – 51) as scanned jpg images.

New Testament

(Not all of these sites are exclusively NT, but they each contain significant NT resources. Also see my specialized page: Resources for NT Study.)

New Testament Gateway (Mark Goodacre) contains a good bibliography page for NT and biblical studies.
Sacred Scriptures Resources (Mundelein Seminary, Chicago)
Biblical Discourse Analysis (Bruce Terry)
The Biblical Studies Foundation There is a wealth of material here on a wide variety of biblical topics. This is one of the best examples of what I consider to be a positive use of the web.
Prof’s Soapbox (Dan Wallace) This is a sub-page on the Biblical Studies Foundation web, but deserves separate listing due to the quantity and quality of NT material available.
Expository Notes (Thomas L. Constable) All of the NT is covered (and the OT); materials are in .pdf format; T.C. is the chairman of the Bible Exposition Dept. at DTS.
Biblica (On-line partial edition. This site contains full text of recent issues and abstracts of others; includes a number of NT articles not indexed here.)
ANRW, Aufstieg und Neiderang der romischen Welt (= Rise and Decline of the Roman World) keyword searchable index (U/Kentucky’s classics dept.); select bibliography of ANRW articles directly related to NT studies (on this site)
TLG, Thesaurus Lingua Graeca (database of all extant Greek literature: contains 76 million words of text, 6,625 works and work collections from 1,823 authors) demo version of selected authors can be accessed online
Quest of Historical Jesus
Gospel/Mark (Michael Spencer)
Synoptic Problem (Stephen Carlson)
Bible-Links Page (Wieland Willker) Links to many resources in both German and English
Bible translation (Wayne Leman) Translations and translation theory by a linguist; one of the most extensive collections of translation information that I’ve found; very helpful with links to specific translations, articles about translation theory, etc. One of the sub pages lists many English Bible Versions.
  • NET Bible, New English Translation: This is a fascinating project that provides on the web a fully accessible translation of the NT (the OT is nearly finished) with extensive translator’s notes. The printed version of the NT as well as a Logos-format CD was released in Nov. 1998. The translation is well done, employing functional equivalence in the text with formal equivalents in the notes–a happy marriage in this instance as the strengths of both approaches has been combined. It will be too bulky to become a “carry to church” Bible or even a pew Bible (unless they release a text-only edition that omits the thousands of notes–16,025 notes in the NT to be exact!), but for serious study, it is a major contribution.

General (theology, apologetics, OT, etc.)

This section is only sketchy; it contains misc. odds-n-ends that I’ve picked up since this is not the primary focus of my pages.

Hermeneutics and Logic, Thomas A. Thomas
Our Hope –if you are interested in theology, visit this page by my theology colleague, Dr. Mike Stallard. Among other items, he has an article on early dispensationalism (“Emile Guers: An Early Darbyite Response to Irvingism and a Precursor to Charles Ryrie”)  available in WinWord97 format. (This is material from Mike’s Ph.D. diss. at Dallas.)
Theological Resources On-Line (several faculty from Philadelphia College of Bible: John Master, Brian Towes, etc.)
Expository Notes (Thomas L. Constable) All of the NT is covered and most of the OT; materials are in .pdf format; T.C. is the chairman of the Bible Exposition Dept. at DTS.
Aletheia (Rick Shrader) A variety of published articles, mostly theology-related, & many re. postmodernity. See also back issues of Shrader’s newsletter; he has written some very insightful pieces.
ABZU: GUIDE TO RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET, A project and publication of  The Research Archives of the Oriental Institute, Chicago (Charles E. Jones)
Jack’s Scribal and Epigraphic Fonts. (Jack Kilmon) This site provides specialized TrueType fonts (mostly in Windows format, some Mac) related to the ANE, including: Sinaiticus Uncial Greek, Greek Minuscule with Ligatures, Linear B, Early Phoenician, Moabite/Mesha Stele Epigraphic, Lachish Ostraca Cursive Palaeohebrew, Elephantine Papyrus Cursive, Early Aramaic (10th C. BC), Nabataean Aramaic, Samaritan, Siloam Inscription, Dead Sea Scroll Scribal based on the Great Isaiah Scroll, Habakkuk Scribal based on Pesher Habakkuk, Meissner Papyrus Cursive, Coptic, Etruscan, Qumran (Herodian), Palaeo-Hebrew, Heiroglyphic, Demotic, Persian Cuneiform, Ugaritic, Old English (other fonts promised soon: Latin Epigraphic, and Roman Grafitti).
Virtual Religion Index (Rutger Univ.’s Religion Dept.) Includes a fairly wide range of links related to the Christian Scriptures.
Review of Biblical Literature (In their own words: “RBL is the most comprehensive review of monographic literature in the field of biblical and related studies as well as reference works, commentaries, dictionaries, and biblical translations. Along with the typical critical book review, RBL will publish review essays, reviews of multi-author volumes, multiple review of the same monograph in English, French, German and Spanish. This international review publishes in both electronic and print formats.”)
The JRM Pages – Bible Notes
The Kenosis page (Dan Musick); also see my material on the kenosis and Phil. 2.
Master’s Seminary Journal
BibSac (many online, full-text articles here!)
Fidelitas (R. Albert Moehler, Jr.)
Why I Believe in God, Cornelius Van Til; links to RealAudio versions of selected Van Til lectures
Covenant Media Foundation (Greg Bahnsen, Cornelius VanTil, and some “lesser lights”)
Reformed Theology
Pastoral Resources (Garry Trammell) “Theological and sermon resources from a Reformed and/or Baptist perspective.” (A lot of zipped files here, but only organized by writer, so it is nearly impossible to find information on a specific topic or text; if you’re studying a specific writer [esp. a Reformed one], then you may find it useful.)
Theological Gathering
Sovereign Grace Theol.
Resources for Biblical Studies
Grace Notes
Christians For Biblical Equality (egalitarian)
CBMW (Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood–complementarian)
Lambert Dolphin’s Links
Northrup’s Biblical Nuggets (Bernard Northrup) [new URL 12/98]
Boston Univ. School of Theology’s page of “Christian Resources”

Christian Sites

This section is very sketchy; it contains odds-n-ends that I’ve picked up, but this is not the primary focus of my pages.


BBC&S Baptist Bible College and Seminary, Clarks Summit, PA (I teach in the Seminary.)
ATS Web Site
Theol. Seminaries & Schools
Central Baptist Seminary (Minneapolis)
Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary (newly revised site; contains some content articles from the DBTS journal)

Christian Organizations

Christianity Today
Pew Scholars
PromiseKeepers site
InterVarsity Press Online
Christian Macintosh Users Group
Indpt Bapts Net Home Page
SIL Home Page
American Bible Society (catalogsscholarly catalog)
United Bible Societies and esp. their Scholarly Resources Page and Scholarly Publications Catalog (These last two links seem quite slow.)
International Bible Society
CBMW (Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood–complementarian view of role relationships)
CBE (Christians for Biblical Equality–egalitarian view of role relationships)

Other Christian Resources

ICLnet Home Page
Christ Lit on the Net
Gospel Comm Network