NT887, Survey of Greek Literature

A course support page for an M.Div.-level course that reads koine Greek literature outside the NT (largely LXX, though with some patristic writers, etc. added). Not updated very often.


Syllabus for spring 2003 semester in .pdf format

Reading Notes

The following material has now been published in a much more polished, revised form; see details of my Koine Greek Reader here.

Only selected portions of the course materials are posted here. All are in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format and all are copyrighted material (other than the text itself, which is public domain). The format is similar for most of these files, though since these are first editions, they are not totally uniform. All the material is now posted here that will be available until the next time the course is taught (prob. spring 2005). At that time this material will probably be revised and additional material added. (These documents are all in Unicode, using the Gentium font.) Introduction to the Reading Notes (abbreviations, etc.), updated 3/19/03 (An older version is included with some of the notes posted earlier.)

LXX, Genesis 1 (text and reading notes for 1:1-13)

LXX, Deut. 4 (text and reading notes for 4:1-14)

LXX, Deut. 4b (text and reading notes for 4:25-40)

LXX, Josh. 10 (text and reading notes for 10:1-14)

LXX, 1 Reigns 17 (= 1 Samuel; text and reading notes for 17:1-37)

LXX, Psalm 2 (text and reading notes)

LXX, Isaiah 53 (text and reading notes)

Ignatius to Polycarp (text 1-6 and reading notes for 3-4, 6)

1 Clement 5 (notes on 1 Clem 5, text of 5-7 + a few scattered passages for background)

Shepherd of Hermas, Mandates 1.1-2, 11:1-20 (notes only on 1.1-2 & 11.1-4)

Greek Creeds (text and notes for both the Nicene and Chalcedonian Creeds; also includes text of Constantinopolitan Creed, but no notes because it is so similar to the Nicene)

Other resources for some of the texts we will be reading:

Septuagint (LXX)

My regular LXX page

The Septuagint page, lots of links, including some for online copies of the complete Greek text of the L

xxMS Word zipped file of LXX text (Rahlfs) using Unicode font (from Ralph Hancock’s site)

pdf files of LXX, book-by-book (also NT)

Nicene Creed, etc.

The Nicene and Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creeds in Greek, parallel column format (requires Unicode polytonic Greek font/display capabilities)

Apostolic Fathers

All of the Apostolic Fathers, Greek text in Unicode format. (Text was transcribed from the Loeb Classical Library edition; needs proof reading.)

Clement to the Corinthians (1 Clem.)

Greek text with commentary (scans from Lightfoot’s 5 vol. set.)

Ignatius of Antioch

English translations


Complete Greek text from the critical edition of Funk/Bihlmeyer (1924). Requires the EGREEK font (details on the page linked here); this is not a Unicode edition unfortunately. Other info on the Didache, including English translations, and still another Didache page.

Shepherd of Hermas

English translations and other information

Note from the TC & B-Greek lists 12/2/02:

Subject: [tc-list]: New Lexicon for the Septuagint

A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Chiefly of the Pentateuch and the Twelve Prophets

Muraoka T. (Takamitsu)

Date: Dec. 2002

ISBN: 90-429-1182-4

Pages: XXXII + 613 p.

Price (Euro) : 75 Euro

This is a substantially expanded version of a lexicon published in 1993 dealing with the Twelve Prophets. This new edition fully incorporates the data relating to the Pentateuch, the centrepiece of the Septuagint. Some 4.500 lexemes (the vocabulary of the New Testament Greek has a little over 5.000 lexemes). Much data from outside the Pentateuch and Twelve Prophets incorporated. Some 1.500 lexemes complete for the entire Septuagint. Many of these do not occur in the Pentateuch nor in the Twelve Prophets, but occur in books for which the Gottingen edition is available. For about 60% of the 4.500+ headwords all the passages occurring in the corpus are either quoted or mentioned. Based on the critically established Gottingen edition of the Septuagint. A fully fledged lexicon, not a glossary merely listing translation equivalents in English. Important lexicographical data such as synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, distinction between literal and figurative, combinations with prepositions, noun cases, syntagmatic information such as what kind of direct or indirect objects a given verb takes, what kind of nouns a given adjective is used with, and much more information abundantly presented and illustrated with quotes, mostly translated. High-frequency lexemes such as prepositions and conjunctions fully analysed. Data on contemporary Koine and Jewish Greek including the New Testament taken into account. Morphological information provided: various tenses of verbs, genitive forms of nouns etc. Hebrew/Aramaic words which a given Greek headword is used to translate listed with frequency counts. Substantive references to the current scientific literature. An indispensable tool for students of the Septuagint, the New Testament, Hellenistic Judaism, and the Greek language. Publisher’s info page [The Seminary library has the earlier edition of this lexicon that covers only the 12 Prophets. I have requisitioned the new edition and we should have it shortly after it is released. It was not available yet as of April 2003.]

Author: Muraoka, T. (Takamitsu)

Title: A Greek-English lexicon of the Septuagint: (Twelve prophets) / T. Muraoka

Imprint: Louvain: Peeters, 1993


Sem Ref 221.48 M972g c.1 91515 [Non-Checkout]

Course Bibliography

Much of this material relates to the LXX, but some other items related to the apocrypha, patristics, the creeds, etc. are included as well. Some are quite technical, others are more accessible to someone just beginning to explore these areas. I have marked a few of the more important items.* This is largely extracted from the syllabus (link above), but with a few corrections and a couple of relevant links added.

Aejmelaeus, Anneli. On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators: Collected Essays. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1993.

Barrera, J. T. The Jewish Bible & the Christian Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Barrett, C. K. The New Testament Background: Selected Documents. Rev. ed. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1987.

Brock, Sebastian P., Charles T. Fritsch, and Sidney Jellicoe. A Classified Bibliography of the Septuagint. Arbeiten zur Literatur und Geschichte des hellenistischen Judentums 6. Leiden: Brill, 1973.

Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Revised and edited by Frederick W. Danker. 3d ed. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [See my specialized page devoted to BDAG.]

Cimosa, M. Guida allo studio della Bibbia Greca (LXX): Storia-lingua-testi. Rome: Britannica & Forestiera, 1995.

Conybeare, F. C. and St. George Stock. Grammar of Septuagint Greek with Selected Readings from the Septuagint According to the Text of Swete. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1905. Reprint, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1988.

Combs, William. “The Transmission-History of the Septuagint.” BSac 146 (1989): 255–69.

Evans, Craig A. Noncanonical Writings and New Testament Interpretation. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1992.*

Ferguson, Everett. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

Glenny, W. Edward. “The Letter of Aristeas.” SBL Abstracts, 1995.

Gooding, D. W. “Aristeas and Septuagint Origins.” VT 12 (1963): 357–79.

[Gottingen Septuagint.] Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1974f. This is the standard critical edition of the LXX. This entry is incomplete, but will point you in the right direction.

Hatch, Edwin. Essays in Biblical Greek: Studies on the Value and Use of the Septuagint… Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1889. Reprint. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1970,

Hengel, Martin. The Septuagint as Christian Scripture: Its Prehistory and the Problem of Its Canon. Translated by M. Biddle. OT Studies. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2002.*

Horsley, H. R. New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity. 8+ vols. (ongoing series) North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Macquarie Univ., 1981–.

Jefford, Clayton. Reading the Apostolic Fathers: An Introduction. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.

Jellicoe, Sidney. The Septuagint and Modern Study. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

Jellicoe, Sidney. Studies in the Septuagint: Origins, Recensions, and Interpretations: Selected Essays, with a Prolegomenon. New York: Ktav, 1974.

Jobes, Karen H. and Moisés Silva. Invitation to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000.*

Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines. 5th ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978.

Klein, Ralph W. Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: The Septuagint after Qumran. Guides to Biblical Scholarship, OT series. Philadelphia : Fortress Press, 1974.

Lampe, G. W. H., ed. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1961–68. (Covers primarily Clement of Rome [late first c. A.D.] to Theodore of Studium [9 C. A.D.], although it also includes a few outside that range, e.g., Pss. of Solomon [1 C. B.C. Jewish!]. “No word which is well attested in [LSJ] is included … unless they are of significance for patristic study” [ix].)

Lesky, Albin. A History of Greek Literature.  [Geschichte der Griechischen Literatur, 2d ed., Bern: Francke, 1963.] Translated by J. Willis and C. De Heer. New York: Crowell, 1966.

Liddell, H. G. and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. Revised by H. S. Jones and R. McKenzie. 9th ed. [1940] With a Revised Supplement. Edited by P. Glare and A. Thompson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

Lightfoot, J. B. The Apostolic Fathers: Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp: Revised Texts with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. 5 vols. 2d ed. London: Macmillan, 1889–90. Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981.*

Lightfoot, J. B. The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations of Their Writings. Edited and revised by Michael Holmes. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.*

Lust, J.; E. Eynikel; and K. Hauspie. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992–96.

Marcos, F. The Septuagint in Context: An Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible. Translated by Wilfred Watson. Brill, 2000. (Orig.: Introducción a las versions griegas de la Biblia, 2d ed. Textos y Estudios “Cardenal Cisneros” 23. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1998.)*

Muller, M. The First Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint. JSOTSup 206. Sheffield, 1996.

Olofsson, Staffan. God Is My Rock: A Study of Translation Technique and Theological Exegesis in the Septuagint. Coniectanea Biblica, OT series 31. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1990.

Olofsson, Staffan. The LXX Version: A Guide to the Translation Technique of the Septuagint. Coniectanea Biblica, OT series 30. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1988.

Ottley, Richard. The Book of Isaiah According to the LXX (Codex Alexandrinus). 2 vols. Cambridge, 1904-06.

Peters, Melvin K. H. “Septuagint.” Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. D. Freedman, 5:1093–1104. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Pietersma, Albert. “Septuagint Research: A Plea for a Return to Basic Issues.” VT 35 (1985): 296–311.

Pietersma, Albert, transl. A New English Translation of the Septuagint: The Psalms. New York: Oxford, 2000.

Rahlfs, Alfred, ed. Septuaginta. Editio minor. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979.

Schaff, Philip. Creeds of Christendom. 3 vols. 4th ed. New York: Harper & Bros., 1877. Reprint. Grand Rapids: Baker.*

Schoedel, William R. “The Apostolic Fathers.” In The New Testament and Its Modern Interpreters, ed. E. J. Epp and G. W. McRae, 457–98. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.*

Schoedel, William R. Ignatius of Antioch: A Commentary on the Letters of Antioch. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.

Shutt, R. J. H. “Letter of Aristeas: A New Translation and Introduction.” In The OT Pseudepigrapha. Edited by J. H. Charlesworth, 2:7–34. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1985.

Silva, Moisés. Biblical Words & Their Meanings. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.*

Swete, Henry Barclay. An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. 2d ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1914. Reprint, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1989.

Taylor, Bernard A. The Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Taylor, Bernard A., ed. X Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Oslo, 1998. Septuagint and Cognate Studies, no. 51. Atlanta: SBL, 2001.

Thackeray, Henry St. John. A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1909. Reprint. Hildesheim/New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1987.

Tov, Emanuel. The Greek and Hebrew Bible: Collected Essays on the Septuagint. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 72. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Tov, Emanuel. “The Septuagint.” In Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Edited by M. J. Mulder and H. Sysling, 161–88. Assen, The Netherlands and Minneapolis: Fortress, 1988.

van der Kooij, Arie. The Oracle of Tyre: The Septuagint of Isaiah xxiii as Version & Vision. Vetus Test. Supp 71. Brill, 1998.

Walters, Peter. The Text of the Septuagint: Its Corruptions and Their Emendation. Edited by D. W. Gooding. Cambridge : University Press, 1973.

Wevers, John. Notes on the Greek Text of Exodus. SBLCSCS 30. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990. See also his later vols. in the same series on Genesis, v. 35 (1993); Leviticus, v. 44 (1998); Numbers, v. 46 (1998); and Deuteronomy, v. 39 (1995).

Wilson, R. McL., “New Testament Apocrypha.” In The New Testament and Its Modern Interpreters, ed. E. J. Epp and G. W. McRae, 429–55. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.